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Cultura e brincar com crianças de Maceió: um estudo a partir de conceitos winnicottianos [Culture and play with children in Maceió: a study based on Winnicottian concepts]

BARBOZA, A. M. de M. Cultura e brincar com crianças de Maceió: um estudo a partir de conceitos winnicottianos [Culture and play with children in Maceió: a study based on Winnicottian concepts]. 133 p. Master’s Dissertation – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, 2021. 

Available on: http://www.repositorio.ufal.br/jspui/handle/123456789/10821

Abstract: The idea of childhood in this work is based on the individual’s potential and creativity, and is based on the notion of child as an active and real person. Donald Winnicott considers play as fundamental and constitutive of childhood and presents play as a facilitator of development, communication and social relations. Thus, based on Winnicott’s psychoanalytic theory, this study aims to investigate and analyze the relationship between culture and child play. And as specific objectives to discuss, reflect and analyze the culture expressed in the play and games of children livin in a lagoon community. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas. This is a qualitative action research, which took place in a philanthropic kindergarten school, and had as participants 20 children aged between 5 and 6 years. Six workshops were held, and the following themes were addressed in them: playing, games, friendship, family, place where they live, culture and creativity. In these workshops, there were playful moments and the use of field diaries and The Thematic Drawing-and-Story Procedure. To analyze the collected material, the Content Analysis technique was used. As results, it was possible to observe an expanded notion of family, with the presence of relatives beyond the family nucleus, containing father, mother, uncles and aunts, brothers and sisters, grandparents, cousins, friends and pets. Racial, economic and gender issues were also noticed. In addition, the presence of characteristics related to the community, such as the strong presence of the lagoon, were present during the workshops and the children showed creativity in the moments of playing. The data enabled the elaboration of four thematic categories: 1. Family, with issues related to endogenous integrating relationships, protection, aggression and conflict, as well as figures of the nuclear and extended family, and issues of gender, race and religion; 2. Arts, in which questions about music, cinema, creation and literature were discussed; 3. Local context, it was discussed about community environments, exogenous relationships, aggression/violence, religion and the presence of nature and animals; and 4. Welcoming research space, reflected on the representation of the workshops as welcoming, as well as the creative possibilities and exogenous relationships. Given the discussions between the data and the theory adopted as the basis for this research, it can be concluded that creative play can cause a subversion of rules and socially imposed roles, as well as the elaboration and contact with the most diverse cultural experiences. According to Winnicott’s theory, the results pointed to culture as something that is not static, being a relationship of mutual constitution between individuals and the culture in which they find themselves in, as demonstrated in the creative possibilities observed in children’s play. The play would be a way of entering the culture, a factor of assimilation of the cultural elements, since the ludic practice allows the appropriation of cultural codes, and also has a crucial importance in the socialization process. It also points out the importance that the family has, not only for development, but for contact with culture’s objects. It was observed that playing as a form of communication is supported by the method beyond the traditional clinic and respect for the space and the children’s speeches proved to be crucial for the good development and result of the workshops’ intervention.

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